In addition, the agreement establishes a new mechanism to “facilitate implementation and promote compliance.” This “non-adversarial” committee of experts will try to help countries that do not meet their commitments to get back on track. There is no penalty for non-compliance. Adaptation issues required increased attention during the formation of the Paris Agreement. Long-term collective adjustment targets are included in the agreement and countries are accountable for their adaptation measures, making adaptation a parallel element of the agreement with reduction.  Adjustment targets focus on improving adaptive capacity, increasing resilience and limiting vulnerability.  On June 1, 6, 2017, President Trump announced that the United States would withdraw from the agreement, but also showed a willingness to renegotiate the agreement or negotiate a new one. Other countries reaffirmed their strong support for the Paris Agreement and said they were not open to further negotiations. == officially began withdrawal from the Paris Agreement on 4 November 2019; it entered into force on 4 November 2020. In 2013, at COP 19 in Warsaw, parties were encouraged to present their “Planned National Contributions” (NDIs) to the Paris Agreement well in advance of COP 21. These submissions represented each country`s mitigation targets for the period from 2020 on or after. The final NDCs have been submitted by each party after the formal ratification or adoption of the agreement and are kept in a UNFCCC register. To date, 186 parties have filed their first NDCs. Ultimately, all parties have recognized the need to “prevent, minimize and treat loss and damage,” but in particular any mention of indemnification or liability is excluded.
 The Convention also adopts the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage, an institution that will attempt to answer questions relating to the classification, management and sharing of responsibilities in the event of loss.  Many countries have stated in their INDCs that they intend to use some form of international emissions trading to implement their contributions. . . .